The Writing Placement Assessment (WPA) is a writing task that should
be familiar to all college students. Instead of responding to a general
question that asks you to write about personal experiences that you may
or may not have experienced, you will be asked to analyze a short reading
selection and write a coherent analysis.
The WPA tests not only reading comprehension but also the ability to analyze
and think critically about a text, which is demonstrated through clear,
Basic Skills Necessary
Evaluators score essays on the writer's ability to analyze a written argument;
to develop and organize ideas; to support these ideas with evidence or
specific examples; to understand your essay's intended audience (i.e.,
faculty from a variety of disciplines); to employ language skillfully;
and to demonstrate appropriate paragraphing, sentence structure, grammar,
punctuation, and spelling.
1. Use this website to familiarize yourself with the requirements, scoring
criteria, sample readings, the prompt, and for advice on ways that you
can prepare. Also, visit the Testing Services
website for any other requirements and information about the administration
of the test, http://www.sa.sdsu.edu/testofc.
2. Read the prompt carefully (at least twice--more times if necessary)
before reading and writing. Circle key words. This will help you focus
on the assigned task. The prompt is located at the end of the Reading
3. Read the Reading Selections before writing. Employ reading strategies
that include underlining, circling, or (better still) annotating parts
of the reading that contain information that you may need to use in your
4. Use a form of prewriting to brainstorm. If activities such as mapping/clustering,
listing, or outlining help you get started and organize your thoughts,
then use prewriting strategies.
5. Organize the time allotted for the writing task. A poorly written essay
can be the result of inadequate planning or inefficient use of the time
allotted. You have two hours to read a short argument and write an
analytical response--so manage your time.
6. Allow time to read and edit your paper. You will not have time to make
extensive revisions, but you should leave enough time to make minor ones
to clarify a point, add evidence or further explanation, add more to a
part that is slighted or missing, and/or conclude your essay. As you read,
make sure that you also correct minor flaws such as grammar, punctuation,
and spelling errors.
7. Use quotations. Keep them short, explain, and use quotation marks at
the "beginning and end."
8. Write legibly: use your normal-size handwriting and the margins in
the booklet. Faint or irregular handwriting is difficult to read.
The following essay prompt will be used for each WPA
offered this semester.
Identify and provide a brief explanation of the author’s argument; identify two persuasive strategies that the author uses to support his or her argument and analyze how those strategies might persuade the reader to support the claim; discuss the assumption(s) on which the argument is based; and evaluate the extent to which the reader would find the argument convincing.
Be sure to follow these directions carefully, rather than simply agreeing or disagreeing or writing an extensive summary of the article.
Important Terms Defined
Pay close attention to how the writing prompt is phrased. It is very important
to focus on the exact assigned task and address all parts of the writing
prompt. If you address what you are being asked, you increase your chances
of earning a better score.
Here are some terms to look for along with brief definitions:
Summarize: Requires you to put the author's
argument in your own words. You want to keep this as brief as possible
by limiting the summary to only one paragraph.
Describe, Explain, Discuss: Moving beyond summary,
these terms require you to analyze, to go beyond what is written to how
it is written. Effective description, explanation, and discussion are
objective and impersonal, rather than subjective. Furthermore, they employ
specific, direct, concrete language.
Evaluate: More subjective than objective analysis,
evaluation requires judgment and assessment based on explicit criteria,
reasoning, and evidence. Evaluating an argument goes beyond declaring
whether or not you agree with it. You are required to assess how its strengths
and weaknesses contribute to or undermine its convincingness. Attention
to the writer's efforts to respond to potential opposition is particularly
Strategies: Strategies are moves or techniques
that help build and support arguments. Commonly used strategies include
examples, statistical support, appeals to the emotions of the reader (pathos),
demonstrations of authorial credibility (ethos), analogies and
comparisons, irony, refutations of opposing arguments, and quotations
from experts and famous sources. Stylistic devices such as repetition,
alliteration, and metaphor can also be characterized as strategies.
Assumptions: Assumptions are the principles, propositions, beliefs, and values upon which arguments or parts of arguments rest. Assumptions can be explicitly stated or implicit (merely implied or suggested) in an argument. They are effective to the extent they come to be shared by the reader and writer, thus forming "common ground."
The information comes from Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings (2004) by John D. Ramage, John C. Bean, and June Johnson.